The article presents the first part of the research on the links between the psychoanalysis, F. Nietzsche's philosophy and some aspects of his biography. In this part, the author demonstrates that not only Nietzsche named himself a philosopher of suspicion, a psychologist and a physician of culture, but he also created his own version of 'psychological analysis'. The author draws attention to the similarity between the several crucial concepts of Nietzsche’s philosophy and different types of psychoanalysis (Freudian, Jungian, Adlerian). He also tries to observe, how this sort of 'congeniality' with psychoanalysis appeared in Nietzsche’s attitude towards philosophy. Like a therapist, Nietzsche not only described the history of Western philosophical thought in terms of a disease (philosophy as a symptom, as a symbol of degeneration, as a compensation for the fundamental inferiority of the philosophers and a disguised manifestation of their will to power), but also prescribed to the philosophers a comprehensive course of treatment, which involved such aspects of well-being, as nourishment, climatic conditions, physical activity and so on.