The article proposes the reconstruction of H.-G. Gadamer’s views on the phenomenon of translation. Gadamer attempted to dialectically reconcile contradictory theses. On the one hand, translation is an extreme form of understanding. The more valuable and self-dependent text is, the more it “loses” in its translation. On the other hand, every understanding is translation, since every understanding is the application of a language (preconception) to the subject of understanding. The author demonstrates that Gadamer underestimates the intersubjectivity of the phenomenon of translation. Translation is understanding-for-Other, the first historical form of reflexive understanding.