“Name and thing”, — how do we speak about things, signify them, nominate, concern with? How do words refer? What is the ‘mechanism’ of reference’? The paper is concerned with analysis of different viewpoints and theories on reference. So called “new theory of reference” and direct reference theory by F. Recanati, contemporary French philosopher (Institut Jean-Nicod, CNRS, Paris) are considered. Theory of direct reference is in special focus of consideration. “What is it for singular term, or for use of singular term, to be referential in the strong sense, i.e. ‘purely’ or ‘directly’ referential” (F. Recanati) — is the general question of the theory construed as a linguistic phenomenon, having parallel feature in thought. The concept of “referentiality” including the analysis of Kripke’s rigid designator and his theory of rigidity as truth-conditions are given in certain semantical context.
The approaches to general theory of reference, including historically significant definitions, theory of proper names, descriptive, causal and ‘hybrid’ theories of reference, kinds of referential expressions are analyzed through the problems of existence, identity, sense (meaning) and truth.