National culture is relatively a relatively recent phenomenon. The main condition of its possibility is the presence of uber-ethnical and uber-class space of communication. But since such space can be created and maintained only by state, national culture and national state turn out to be inseparable from each other. The time of flourishing of national cultures coincides with the time of flourishing of national states. It is the beginning of the 19th — mid-20th century. During the third part of the 20th century the conditions have been formed, that sustainably hampered the nation states’ capability of maintaining a unified symbolic space and a unified space of communication. Therefore it is quite likely, that history will confirm the rightness of Terry Eagleton, who stated that it was culture, that was the basis for creating national states in the past; and in the future it will be culture, that will destroy them. Sovereignty of the nation states in the cultural sphere is becoming more and more fictitious. However its fictitiousness does not prevent states from pretending to it. Moreover, the more obvious the fictitiousness of cultural sovereignty is, the more actively they claim to possess it. This article is concluded with the author’s reflections on the struggle for cultural sovereignty in the post-Soviet context. According to his views, the positions of nationalism are as losing, as the positions of cultural imperialism.