The article makes a brief review of the sociology of religion as a social science discipline and its place within the framework of the academic research of religious phenomena in present day Serbia. It describes the history of the discipline and the important contribution to social sciences made by different scholars on the early stages of its development (from the first half of the 20th century). The main attention is given to the period which started in the 1980’s and lasts for more than thirty years representing the contemporary Serbian thought of the examined scientific area. This period covers various social processes which determine the specificity of the formation of national scientific schools and the relevant subjects of research. The sociology of religion in Serbia is developing as a part of sociological thought within numerous scientific associations and research centres though they include scholars from different academic areas. The history and activity of the leading associations such as YSSSR (Yugoslavian Society for the Scientific Study of Religion), CEIR (Centre for Empirical Researches of Religion), and Centre for Religious Studies are examined. The subject area of the research made by famous scholars and research teams are presented and discussed.